How Jon Jones can test positive without actually having taken it (that day)…
… and a brief look at the physiology of body fat and toxins. The key to this is understanding the physiology of body fat metabolism and the fat-solubility of Turinabol, the substance Jon Jones is accused of having taken. First, I am a strength coach who has been obsessed with studying strength training, nutrition and rapid body composition changes for over a decade now and not an expert on doping. Everyone who has been around strength training this long has read about doping and that way developed a grasp of the basic facts. One basic fact is: Steroids like Turinabol and its metabolites are primarily fat-soluble in nature. Combining this base fact with my realm of expertise which includes the physiology of body fat metabolism and the given situation of testing negative all camp and then showing up with a positive test at the most unnecessary time possible which is the day between weigh in and fight gives one clear option:
The substance – Turinabol – could have been taken years ago, stored in body fat and then released back in the system during the last days of the weight cut while shedding more body fat then he has done ever before.
In the scenario of Jon Jones’s last fight, he has been visually in the best condition he has ever been in, meaning that he has lost more body fat in preparation than ever before. Which is also explained by himself during the Embedded Video Series leading up to fight where he states that this has been the easiest weight cut ever, while having pancakes for breakfast in fight week. And he still made weight easily on the day of the weigh in. This loss of extra body fat is one factor to consider with the above option.
Looking deeper at this possibility from a scientific perspective the human body is very intelligent, and where possible, stores the fat-soluble toxins in metabolically inactive body fat rather than metabolically more active tissue such as muscles and organs.
This is what’s called ‘bioaccumulation’ where fat soluble substances – that’s substances are able to dissolve in fat – are stored in fat cells, preventing them from harming your organs and other vital tissues.
There is plenty of further research done on the release of fat-soluble toxins from body fat during food deprivation, fat loss and exposure of high levels of the stress hormone cortisol such as during the weight cut of a fight week (1)(2)(3)(4)(5).
Which gives a theoretical base to the option of having stored the metabolites in the fatty tissue which was then released during the last days of the weight cut from the body fat due to food deprivation and higher cortisol which both facilitate lipolysis – the breakdown of body fat.
From a practical standpoint, I also personally know an Olympian from the 90s who has been affected by the same scenario, where he used a substance that was allowed and stopped using it once it was not allowed anymore over a year out from the Olympics. Then I he still tested positive at the Olympics despite its short half-life and definitely not taking it for over a year. The food deprivation because of some digestive problems from traveling and high stress leading up in the week to his competition where back then stated as the reason for a potential release of the substance back into his bloodstream.
This is a scenario clearly not an excuse but surely an option with a valid physiological base that can explain their scenario and give it some sense and alternate validity to the claims.References:1.Reintoxication: the release of fat-stored Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol into blood is enhanced by food deprivation or ACTH exposure. N Gunasekaran,1 LE Long,2 BL Dawson,3 GH Hansen,3 DP Richardson,1 KM Li,1 JC Arnold,1 and IS McGregor – School of Medical Science (Pharmacology) and Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782342/ 2.Fate and Complex Pathogenic Effects of Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Obese Subjects before and after Drastic Weight Loss – Min-Ji Kim,1,* Philippe Marchand,2,* Corneliu Henegar,3,4,5,* Jean-Philippe Antignac,2 Rohia Alili,3,4,5 Christine Poitou,3,4,5 Jean-Luc Bouillot,6 Arnaud Basdevant,3,4,5 Bruno Le Bizec,2 Robert Barouki,1,7 and Karine Clément3,4,5 – Université Paris Descartes, Centre Universitaire des Saints-Pères, Paris, France – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060002 3. Body weight loss increases plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of potentially toxic pollutants in obese individuals. Chevrier J1, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Mauriège P, Després JP, Tremblay A. – Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada.- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/110932884. Increased plasma levels of toxic pollutants accompanying weight loss induced by hypocaloric diet or by bariatric surgery. Hue O1, Marcotte J, Berrigan F, Simoneau M, Doré J, Marceau P, Marceau S, Tremblay A, Teasdale N. – Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Québec, Canada. – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/169896975. Inverse associations between long-term weight change and serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants J S Lim1,2, H-K Son1,3, S-K Park1, D R Jacobs Jr4,5 and D-H Lee – Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea – http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v35/n5/full/ijo2010188a.html
Picture: Jon Jones during the weigh in for his 2013 fight against Chael Sonnen (Photo: Tim Leidecker)